March 26, 2017

0.6.2: LibRed and Macros

It is with great pleasure that I announce the 0.6.2 release of the Red programming language and toolchain. This release is the second heaviest one we have ever made (after the 0.6.0), weighing about 1200 commits! It was intended initially to be a minor one, but the needs for preprocessing support for Red runtime code arose, so it was the right time to make a first iteration into the land of macros. Moreover, the work on libRedRT (described below) gave us the opportunity to fulfill one of the goals we had for Red: become embeddable. This is now a reality, thanks to libRed. So the main features of this release are:

  • Macros and preprocessor support
  • Fast compilation using libRedRT
  • LibRed for embedding Red anywhere


The Red macros and preprocessing abilities have been the topic of a previous article, so I invite you to discover them (and hopefully enjoy!) if you have not yet done so.

In addition to this article, it is worth mentioning that a feature called pre-load has been implemented since then (you can read about it down below), which can be used as an entry point for user-provided reader macros, and allow easier support for non-standard syntax. This is a minor feature, as Rebol-like languages already come strongly equipped for string parsing and processing, thanks to the Parse dialect.

Development and release modes for compilation

The biggest change introduced by this new version is the splitting of the compilation process in two modes, which are controlled by different command-line options:

  • development: (-c) only user code is compiled (new mode).
  • release: (-r) both user code and Red runtime library are compiled together.

When using -c, the Red runtime library is pre-compiled to a dynamic library called libRedRT ("RT" for RunTime), stored in the hidden red/ folder. When libRedRT is already present, only user code is compiled resulting in drastically shorter compilation times.

When -r option is used, the toolchain compiles user code in release mode, compiling with it all dependencies (including Red runtime library).

Here are a couple of simple benchmarks to show the (huge) difference in performance, using and scripts compiled in both modes:

Another benchmark is compiling the Red tests suite (~18000 tests), unified way combines the tests into the minimum number of compilation units, while split way compiles each test file separately:

Measured on a Corei7 4Ghz Win7/64-bit machine.

Such performance results in significant daily productivity gains, both for the Red team, and Red users. It was worth the time and effort it took to properly convert the runtime library into a shared library. Though, the full support for modular compilation will come in 0.8.0, which will result in drastic cuts for the compilation time in release mode too.

Such fast compilation mode also works for Red scripts that embed Red/System code. Two cases are possible:
  1. Red/System code does not contain any call to Red runtime library.
  2. Red/System code contains one or several calls to Red runtime library.
In the first case, nothing needs to be done, the usage rules described above apply.

In the second case, a custom version of libRedRT is required, but the toolchain will take care of the process, it just requires the user to compile once using -u option, then simply use -c for next compilations. If new functions from the runtime library are called, then a new custom library needs to be rebuilt.

When compiling a custom run-time library, cleaning libRedRT files is needed to get rid of any outdated versions. The toolchain provides a red clear command which will remove all current libRedRT related files. Note that when upgrading the red binary to a newer version, it will automatically upgrade libRedRT on first invocation.

Any Red user code can be compiled in development mode, with the exception of objects with multiple inheritance, which is not supported by libRedRT (so can only be compiled in release mode).

Embedding Red using libRed

LibRed is the embeddable version of the Red interpreter + runtime library. It includes Parse dialect, reactive programming and our GUI system (View engine, VID dialect, Draw dialect). It exposes an interface to the host language through an API, which is C-compatible, so that any language that can embed C shared libraries, can also embed libRed.

The libRed API has been designed to be as simple and as straightforward as possible. See for yourself in the API documentation. The role of that API is to provide the required hooks for interfacing the Red runtime and interpreter with the host language. A high-level binding can eventually be built on top of the libRed C-level API, that will best map Red features, to the host language features.

A libRed HelloWorld in C:
    #include "red.h"

    int main() {
        redPrint(redString("Hello World!"));
        return 0;
A libRed graphic HelloWorld in C:
    #include "red.h"

    int main() {
        redDo("view [text {Hello World!}]");
        return 0;

In addition to the C-level API, we provide also a binding for VisualBasic for Applications, which can be used to embed Red into Microsoft Office applications!

Here is a demo showing side-by-side an Excel/VB window and a Red window playing Pong game:

All the code for this demo fits in a single page of VB code! You can get the required files from here. In that same Excel file, you will find two other simple examples of integration of Red with Excel sheets, which look like this:

Building libRed is straightforward:
    red build libred
That will build libRed with the cdecl ABI, suitable for integration with any C-compatible host. For VBA and MS Office, the stdcall ABI is required, which is achieved using:
    red build libred stdcall
The building process will also result in creating a libRed/ directory locally, expanding some extra files required for linking libRed properly.

Currently, full bindings are provided for C and VisualBasic. Experimental bindings are also available for RustAdobe AIR and C#.

This is a first iteration for libRed, we have plans for improving it, and for providing proper multi-instances support (currently limited at one instance per process).

Changes in 0.6.2

Core language
  • New datatypes: tag!, email!
  • New action: to
  • New natives: as, call
  • New functions: tag?, email?, hex-to-rgb, sqrt, class-of, face?, distance?, expand-directives, to-*, rejoin
  • Adds integers auto-promotion to floats on loading and on some integer operations.

If you need to preprocess the input to LOAD, you can now do it easily by plugging a function into system/lexer/pre-load. This feature is mostly meant for pre-processing the console's input, though it could also be used for changing some Red syntactic rules. For example:
    system/lexer/pre-load: func [src part][replace/all src comma space]

    >> [1,2,3,abd,"hello"]
    == [1 2 3 abd "hello"]
Another usage could be to translate words on-the-fly in the console:
    system/lexer/pre-load: function [src part][
        parse src [
            any [
                s: [
                    "affiche"       (new: "print")
                    | "si"          (new: "if")
                    | "tant que"    (new: "while")
                    | "pair?"       (new: "even?")
                    | "impair?"     (new: "odd?")
                ] e: (s: change/part s new e) :s
                | skip

    >> i: 10 tant que [i > 0][si impair? i [affiche i] i: i - 1]

In addition to several small fixes, load now offers a /trap refinement, which enables manual error management when loading a string series. Instead of raising an error, load/trap will just stop and return a block made of:
  • a block of successfully loaded values.
  • the input string at the position where the lexer failed.
  • an error! value (or none! value if the tail of the string has been reached).

Command-line argument processing has been mostly rewritten to provide a consistent experience across platforms and type of binaries (red executables, console executables, compiled user scripts and, to a lesser extent, Red/System executables). The new features are:
  • system/options/script refers to the script name (string! or none!).
  • system/options/args refers to a list of tokenized arguments (block! or none!).
  • system/script/args refers to the original command-line (string! or none!).
  • full Unicode support for red executable's arguments on Windows.
  • single-quoted arguments are accepted on all platforms (same as double quotes)
  • multiple nested quotes are treated as just one level of quoting when splitting the command-line.

Datatypes conversions are now fully supported in Red! The to action is now officially supported, and make action has been completed. The usual to-<type> helper functions you can find in Rebol, are also now defined. All the conversion rules are documented in an Excel matrix for now.


Calling external applications is also now possible thanks to the contributed code for call function by Bruno Anselme, which has now been integrated into the runtime library. Use help call to explore all the options offered. Note that the /console option, which redirects I/O from child process, is not supported currently by the Red GUI console (it works fine from within the Red CLI console).

View and VID dialect

A number of small changes and fixes have been provided both in View and VID, among them:
  • box, h1 to h5 styles added to VID.
  • Colors in VID can now be specified as hex values, using #rgb or #rrggbb formats.
  • Adds support for no-border flag to area and field face types.
  • Adds now option to rate keyword in VID, to fire on-time actor at once.
  • The wheel event  and on-wheel actor are now available for handling mouse wheel events.
  • Default tab size for area changed to 4 spaces.
  • View now uses DirectWrite to draw text in base face (except WindowsXP).
  • Better handling of default fonts.
  • Enhanced GUI console, with new settings window with pre-selected colors picker.
  • A hint text can now be specified in a field options block and a hint keyword has been added to VID. For example:

Draw dialect

Big additions were made to Draw, most thanks to massive contributions from Zamlox:

  • Matrix operations support: matrix, invert-matrix, reset-matrix, matrix-order, push, rotate, scale, translate, skew, transform.
  • A new clip command is available for defining a clipped drawing/filling region.
  • A Shape sub-dialect has been added for more complex shapes drawing and filling.
  • A crop option is now available for image command.
  • pen and fill-pen have been vastly extended to allow drawing and filling with gradients, patterns, arbitrary shapes and images. Have a look at some of the new capabilities (source):

Parse dialect

In addition to some fixes, a few new features were added:
  • insert command now also support position argument (like change).
  • added pick option to keep, so user can control how keep captures the matched input:
    • keep collects matched values as a series if many, or as a value if only one.
    • keep pick collects all the matched values separately in a block.
    • keep copy <word> collects all the matched values as a single series (of same type as input).

Red/System dialect

  • Support for float! / float32! conversions from/to integer!.
  • Adds system/cpu/overflow? field for reading CPU's integer overflow state.
  • Adds support for importing variables from shared libraries.
  • Allows loading of libraries from current folder and PATH environment variable on macOS.
  • Now #call directive supports function calls with refinements.
  • Default ABI for exported functions is now settable through export-ABI entry in config object.
  • Renamed log and log10 imports from libC, respectively to log-2 and log-10.
  • Now size? accepts a context path argument.
  • Improved error reporting for "missing argument" errors.

Other changes

  • A prototype Red/.Net bridge has been introduced.
  • New --config [...] command-line option, for passing a block of compiler settings.
  • Added -s and --show-expanded command-line options to output expanded version of compiled source code.
  • Added /target option to react?.
  • Added /seek and /lines option to write.
  • Added /expand refinement to do for preprocessor invocation.
  • Added math function for evaluating code using math precedence rules.
  • CTRL-L key combination can now clear the GUI console's screen.
  • Checksum function can now trigger object on-deep-change event.
  • Now keep returns its argument (collect function).
  • Added temporary rejoin function.
  • Added 'class reflective property to objects.
  • Added class-of accessor (only objects).
  • Nicer handling of line breaks in molded image! binary buffer.
  • Now #include is converted to do in interpreted code (using macros).
  • Zero? function is now a native and supports time! values.

Also, more than 150 issues have been fixed (and wishes granted) during the last months, 22 issues marked as bugs are left open.

Last but not least, our documentation on Gitbook (which is an ongoing work) has been moved to Asciidoc format now, thanks to the efforts of Tovim. That new format will provide us better options for a more accurate control of the styles and layout.

A big thank goes to all contributors who pushed code or who opened tickets clearly identifying issues.

What's Next?

Since 0.6.1, we have adjusted the Red roadmap to work on two releases in parallel. This means that while 0.6.2 was progressing, 0.6.3 was advancing at the same time, is now almost ready, and will be merged into master in a couple of days (if you happen to have a Mac, it contains the macOS GUI backend for Red!). As soon as 0.6.3 is out, 0.7.0 will start (full async I/O), while 0.6.4 (Android) is being worked on. That should provide us a higher number of new releases this year, while still implementing large new features. So far, such approach has worked pretty well.

In the meantime, and as usual, enjoy playing with Red!

December 17, 2016

Incursion into "explorable explanations" lands

A few days ago, Nicky Case released an amazing piece of work in form of an interactive guide to alternative voting systems. This work follows the track of Brett Victor's famous research on explorable explanations and immediately caught our eyes because it is a very good match for the capabilities of our reactive native GUI system. We decided to replicate some of Nicky's interactive explanations in Red and see how it goes. The results are pretty amazing, as it was not only relatively easy to design and code (about 8 hours in total and ~280 LOC) but also great fun! Here is the result:

You can, of course, try it yourself by using the latest build from the master (or macGUI) branch or, preferably, one of the prebuilt consoles:
Put the console executable in the source code folder, run it and from the prompt, just type:
    red>> do
For Linux folks, sorry guys, the GUI support is not yet ready for prime time, though in the meantime, you could use Wine, Red GUI usually runs just fine on it.

Notes for macOS users:
  • You need to `chmod +x` the binary before running it from the terminal.
  • When dragging a face quickly, it can lag behind. The macOS GUI backend is still in a development branch, and still need some work to optimize animation latencies.

Implementation notes

The Red version implements only the "model1" and "ballot1" to "ballot4" interactive explanations. The rest could also be easily done in the same way, though we used up all our spare time for that as we are now focussing on the Red 0.6.2 release.

The colored shapes are images in the web version, but instead we chose to draw them using our 2D vector DSL in the Red version. Overall, the Red version is really small, about 25-45 LOC per screen, 85 LOC for the helper code and 2D shapes. All things considered, it is significantly smaller than the web version:
This is an interesting result, as the web version uses only plain JS, no third-party framework (with the exception of the almost weightless minipubsub). The counted JS code could maybe be shortened (excluding minification) though it already looks pretty simple to me, containing very few comments, doing mostly calculations and canvas drawing. I doubt it could be reduced significantly (any thoughts from expert JS readers about that?).

Final thoughts

This fun experiment shows that Red has the potential to be a great match for explorable explanations and other similar reactive interface needs. We hope that this demo will inspire the Red community to dig more in that direction and see what gems are lying there. For example, learning Red using such interactive visual approach would be great, don't you think so? ;-)

December 2, 2016

Entering the World of Macros

In Rebol languages family, macros have been a topic every now and then, and despite one implementation offered, they never became mainstream. Rebol language, being homoiconic, comes already well-equipped for code transformations at run-time with minimal effort. For example, this short script:
    code: [print "hello"]
    code: reduce [code]
    insert code [loop 2]
    probe code
    do code
when evaluated will output:
    [loop 2 [print "hello"]]
For a more sophisticated example, see our GUI live-coding in just a few lines.

Moreover, Rebol being interpreted, the cost of transformations is still paid at run-time.

But with Red, it is a different story. Being compiled, in addition to being interpreted, weighs heavily in favor of a preprocessing facility, in order to leverage compile-time code transformations. It is available now (in the master branch), in the form of a preprocessor with macro capabilities.

Let me restate it for the readers not familiar with macros and source preprocessing:

    The goal is to shift some data and code transformations from run-time to compile-time.

This is the key point of the new features in Red, described below.

Design and implementation

The preprocessing (including macro-time) happens between load and compile phases. It has been designed as a separate phase, with a separate execution context (to the extent allowed by current Red semantics, until we get the module! type implemented). Among other benefits, this enforces hygiene in Red macros. The preprocessor directives syntax relies on the familiar `#` prefixed forms (issue! values), meant to visually stand out from regular code, enforcing the idea of a separate layer of processing.

As Red strives to keep the source code accepted by the compiler and interpreter as interchangeable as possible, the preprocessor can also be run by the interpreter, between load and eval phases, supporting exactly the same features as the compiler version. Actually, they even share the same implementation, a unique file, with a double Rebol/Red header, run by Rebol2 for the toolchain and by Red for the interpreter. Though the preprocessor has to preprocess itself and a few core files used by the compiler setup sequence. In order to solve this chicken and egg problem, some directives have been hardcoded in the preprocessor instead of been implemented as macros.

The preprocessing (including macro expansion) is applied to the whole source fed to the compiler (or interpreter) after the load phase, so it is applied on a parse tree (similar to an AST). This means that no information about objects or other contexts built at run-time is available, it is just a big tree of Red values. Further research is planned in future releases to improve that, if possible. An alternative approach relying on interleaving macro expansion with compile/eval phases (late-time expansion) was considered, but not adopted, due to much higher implementation costs and potentially confusing inter-mixed behaviors, making it hard to grasp and be properly used by a majority of users. As we value simplicity utmostly, we will stick to the current simpler model for now, to ensure the broadest possible usage.

Simple macros

Documentation about preprocessing directives like #if, #either, #switch, #case, ... is available, and should feel familiar to Rebol SDK users, so this article will just focus on the real novel part: macro support.

Macros are basically functions, taking source code references as arguments in order to transform that source code. Most of the time, the returned value from the macro is replacing the macro name and argument at the call site in the source code. Though, this default mode can be overriden, and more control can be given to the macro through pattern-matching macros, explained later below.

For sake of brevity, the Red header is omitted from following code examples. You can copy/paste those code snippets in the console, wrapping them in a do expand [...] call or compile them (just add a Red [] header) using a `red -c -s <>` line.

Simple macros can be defined in a similar way to regular functions, though they need to be preceeded by a #macro directive:
    #macro as-KB: func [n][n * 1024]
    print as-KB 64
When the macro is expanded by the preprocessor, the above source code will result in:
    print 65536
This kind of simple macro is called a named macro in Red's jargon. Once the preprocessor has finished his work, no macro definition or call, nor any preprocessor directive remains in the source code (compiler directives defined as issue! values, are still there though).

Remember that macros take source code values as arguments, without evaluating them, so passing unquoted words or paths is fine:
    #macro capitalize: function [value][
        s: uppercase/part form value 1
        either path? value [to-lit-path s][to-lit-word s]
    print capitalize hello
    print capitalize hello/macro/world
will result in:
    print 'Hello
    print 'Hello/macro/world
As you can see both func and function constructors are accepted for declaring a macro.

One possible use of macros can then be word-aliasing, for example translating words at compile-time (using French words here):
    #macro si:      func []['if]
    #macro affiche: func []['print]
    #macro vrai:    func []['true]

    si vrai [affiche "Vive Red !"]
will result in:
    if true [print "Vive Red !"]
Now, let's get back to the first example and expand (no pun intended) on it:
    #macro make-KB: func [n][n * 1024]
    #macro make-MB: func [n][make-KB make-KB n]
    print make-MB 1
will result in:
    print 1048576
So macros can freely call other macros, the same way functions would. This is possible because macros are running in a special (hidden) context, which can be accessed and extended (indirectly) by the user using the #do directive:
    #do [kilo: 1024]
    #macro make-KB: func [n][n * kilo]
The #do directive accepts arbitrary code, so local words and functions can be defined there freely, and accessed from macros. This gives a pretty powerful programming layer for the preprocessor, though, it is possible to go even further.

Pattern-matching macros

For Red users, the logical next step once having macros (as defined above), is to be able to combine them with one of the Rebol world's jewels: the Parse DSL. Well that is what pattern-matching macros are. ;-) Instead of matching a word as trigger for the macro, you can replace it with a valid Parse rule (which can call sub-rules defined in #do expressions), defining a pattern that will trigger the macro.

We can now improve our `make-KB` macro with a nicer looking form:
    #macro [number! 'KB] func [s e][to-integer s/1 * 1024]
    print 64 KB
    print 2.5 KB
would result in:
    print 65536
    print 2560
In that example, the macro gets called each time a number! followed by the word! KB is encountered in the source code. They will then both get replaced by the macro returned value. The arguments of pattern-matching macros are always the same: one reference to the starting position (s) of the matched pattern, and one reference to the ending position (e).

Here are a few more examples, showing the true power of Red macros:

Variable-arguments macro
    #macro ['max some [integer!]] func [s e][
        first maximum-of copy/part next s e
    print max 4 2 3 8 1
would result in:
    print 8

Loop macro

A simple loop macro, extending the existing loop function:
    #macro ['loop [integer! | block!] block!] function [[manual] s e][
        set [spec body] next s
        if integer? spec [return e]    ;-- return position past the pattern
        low: high: none
        step: 1

        unless parse spec [
            opt '= set low integer!
            opt [opt 'to set high integer!]
            opt [opt 'step set step integer!]
            print ["*** LOOP syntax error:" spec]
        new: reduce either high [
            set-var: to-set-word var: spec/1
            cond: compose [(var) <= (high)]
            repend body [set-var var '+ step]
            [set-var low 'while cond body]
            ['repeat spec/1 low body]
        change/part s new e

    loop 2 [print "x"]
    loop [i 3][print i]
    loop [i 5 8][print i]
    loop [i = 5 to 10 step 2][print i]
would result in:
    loop 2 [print "x"]
    repeat i 3 [print i]
    i: 5 while [i <= 8] [print i i: i + 1]
    i: 5 while [i <= 10] [print i i: i + 2]
This pattern-matching macro relies on the manual mode ([manual] attribute), where the replacement is done by user code and the returned value needs to be the position in the source code where the expansion process resumes. In this case, loop is also an existing function, so when the argument is an integer, the source is left untouched. With a normal macro, the resuming point would have been the beginning of the pattern, resulting in an infinite loop (again, no pun intended). ;-)

Math expressions folding macro

A powerful way to pre-calculate constant math expressions from your source code could be to use a macro like this one:
    #do [
        p:     none
        op:    ['+ | '- | '* | '** | slash]
        paren: [p: paren! :p into expr]
        fun:   [['sine | 'cosine | 'square-root] expr]
        expr:  [[number! | paren] op expr | number! | paren | fun]

    #macro [expr] func [[manual] s e][
        if all [e = next s number? s/1][return e]  ;-- skip single number
        change/part s do (copy/part s e) e

    a: 3 + 2 - 8
    print (3 + 4) * 6
    edge: 100 * cosine 60
    hypotenuse: square-root (3 ** 2) + (4 ** 2)
would result in:
    a: -3
    print 42
    edge: 50.0
    hypotenuse: 5.0

HTML validating macro

HTML tags are a first-class datatype in Red so they can be embedded and manipulated by the core language (like string values). The Red lexer will check the syntax but wouldn't it be nice to also have a minimal check the semantics at compile-time? Let's roll a macro for that:
    #do [
        error: function [pos [block! paren!] msg [block!]][
            print [
                "*** HTML error:" reduce msg lf
                "*** at:" copy/part pos 4

    #macro tag! function [[manual] s e][
        stack: []
        tag: s/1

        either slash = tag/1 [
            last?: (name: next tag) = last stack
            all [
                not last?
                find stack name
                error s ["overlapping tag" tag]
            if any [empty? stack not last?][
                error s ["no opening tag for" tag]
            take/last stack
            if slash <> last tag [    
                if pos: find tag " " [tag: copy/part tag pos]

                unless find s head insert copy tag slash [
                    error s ["no closing tag for" tag]
                append stack tag
        next s

    data: [<html><br/><b>msg<b></html>]
    msg: "Red rocks!"
    print data
The embedded HTML above has an error, the <b> tag is not closed. This macro will catch that error and report it properly during the compilation.

A DSL compiler

Red is already very well-suited for DSL creation, though, the cost of interpreting or compiling DSL has always been paid at run-time so far. With macros, it can be moved to compile-time, when suitable. Here is a simple subset of BASIC language, partially compiled to Red code using a single macro:
    #macro do-basic: function [src /local math][
        output: clear []
        lines:  clear []
        value!: [integer! | string! | word!]
        op:     ['+ | '- | '* | slash]
        comp:   ['= | '<> | '< | '> | '<= | '>=]
        line:   [p: integer! (repend lines [p/1 index? tail output])]
        cmd:    [
            token: 'let word! '= value! opt [copy math [op value!]] (
                emit reduce [to-set-word token/2 token/4]
                if math [emit/part math 2]
            | 'if value! comp value! 'then (
                emit/part token 4
                emit/only make block! 1
                parent: output
                output: last parent
            ) cmd (output: parent)
            | 'print value! (emit/part token 2)
            | 'goto integer! (
                line: select/skip lines token/2 2
                emit compose [jump: (line)]
        emit: function [value /only /part n [integer!]][
            if part [value: copy/part value n]            
            either only [append/only output value][append output value]
        unless parse src [some [line cmd]][
            print ["*** BASIC Syntax error at:" mold token]
        compose/deep [
            (to-set-word 'eval-basic) function [pc [block!]][
                bind pc 'pc
                while [not tail? pc][
                    do/next pc 'pc
                    if jump [
                        pc: at head pc jump
                        jump: none
            eval-basic [(output)]

    do-basic [
        10 LET A = "hi!"
        20 LET N = 3
        30 PRINT A
        40 LET N = N - 1
        50 IF N > 0 THEN GOTO 30
will result in:
    eval-basic: function [pc [block!]][
        bind pc 'pc
        while [not tail? pc][
            do/next pc 'pc
            if jump [
                pc: at head pc jump
                jump: none
    eval-basic [
        A: "hi!"
        N: 3
        PRINT A
        N: N - 1
        IF N > 0 [jump: 5]
Note: I tried to keep this example short, so it ends up as a BASIC source code compiler to Red, but fed to a custom interpreter. Fully compiling that DSL to Red code would be possible, but would require more complex constructs, in order to deal with a GOTO able to arbitrarily jump anywhere, and that is beyond the scope of this article.

Final thoughts

The preprocessor and macros bring great new possibilities to the Red compiler, while still being able to run the same code with the interpreter. Though, as the saying goes, with great power comes great responsibility, so keeping in mind some drawbacks would be wise:
  • As there is no difference in Red between code and data, both can be transformed by the same macros, which is not always desirable. Some mechanisms for limiting the application scope exist in the preprocessor, though there is no guarantee they can cover all use-cases. Stay alert, especially with pattern-matching macros.
  • It is not always easy to reason about and debug macros, unless you have some existing experience. I would suggest not using them until you have a good grasp of Red's toolchain, semantics and fundamental concepts (like homoiconicity).
  • As the Red toolchain is currently run by a Rebol2 interpreter, Rebol is running the compile-time macros, so keep that in mind when writing them. If you want them to run equally well on the interpreter, you need to use only the common subset between Rebol2 and Red. Sooner or later we should move compile-time preprocessing to use a Red engine (thanks to libRed), so this concern is temporary.

Last but not least, for those wondering about syntactic macros (aka readers macros) inclusion in Red, as for AST-macros, they are not strictly necessary, as the Parse DSL already provides us a powerful tool to implement pre-load-time processing. Though they could still bring some extra benefits (like embedding the processing logic within the source code), but could also go against the Red-as-data-format principle, or wreak havoc in IDE support (like messing up syntax coloring and step by step debugging). We need more time to go through each concern and see how to deal with them before adding such a feature.

I hope this long article was useful for those of you who had no past experience with macros and entertaining for those who have. Have fun with this brand new toy and let us know what you think about it on Gitter. Cheers!

See comments on /r/programming.

July 18, 2016

Eve-style clock demo in Red, livecoded!

Like many others, we are fans of Chris Granger's work on Lighttable and more recently on Eve. The Eve project shares some similar goals with Red, though taking a different road by giving a new try at visual programming, while Red still tries to push further the limits of textual representation. A few days ago, the Eve team tweeted a nice small clock demo using their framework. Here is our own version of that demo using Red and our native reactive GUI (Eve relies on a web engine):

The Eve demo has a "compile and run" button, which we thought was not necessary in our case, as we can easily build a livecoding editor in few lines. ;-)

Here is the full source of our demo. Use our latest Windows build to run it from the GUI console:
    clock-demo: {
    base 200x200 transparent rate 1 now draw [
        scale 2 2
        fill-pen #0B79CE pen off
        circle 50x50 45
        line-width 2
        hour: rotate 0 50x50 [pen #023963 line 50x50 50x20]
        min:  rotate 0 50x50 [pen #023963 line 50x50 50x10]
        sec:  rotate 0 50x50 [pen #CE0B46 line 50x50 50x10]
    ] on-time [
        time: now/time
        hour/2: 30 * time/hour
        min/2:  6  * time/minute
        sec/2:  6  * time/second

    system/view/silent?: yes

    view [
        title "Eve clock demo"
        backdrop #2C3339

        source: area #13181E 410x300 no-border clock-demo font [
            name: "Consolas"
            size: 9
            color: hex-to-rgb #9EBACB

        panel 200x300 #2C3339 react [
            attempt/safer [face/pane: layout/tight/only load source/text]

As you can see the clock demo code is held in a string, which will be used to feed an area widget that we use as a code editor. Each change in the area triggers a reaction which will try to interpret the code as VID dialect using thelayout function and feed the panel's content with it. We could have used a simple on-change handler here, but react is so simple and versatile, that we can forget about events in many cases.

Yes, livecoding (using native widgets!) in Red can be that simple. As you can see, there's no built-in "livecode" widget or feature, it's an emergent behavior resulting from the combination of existing Red features, homoiconicity being the most fundamental.

As a sidenote, the code above could be improved to avoid some light flickering.

If you want to see more Red feats and get more info about Red, check out:

Red is only at Alpha 0.6.1, and there is significant work still to do. Though, you can already imagine the sheer power that will be into your hands by the time Red reaches 1.0. ;-)


July 7, 2016

Native reactive spreadsheet in 17 LOC

After the release of our reactive framework a few days ago, we though it would be a good idea to implement the, often mentioned, spreadsheet model as a small demo, just to see how much it would take to do it in Red, with its current feature-set. Well, despite not having a grid component, it turns out that 17 LOC (of packed, but still readable code; down to 14 LOC and 1053 bytes if minified) is enough to make a spreadsheet-like demo with native widgets and realtime updating of dependent cells as-you-type! ;-)

Red [] L: charset "ABCDEFGHI" D: union N: charset "123456789" charset "0" 
repeat y 9 [repeat x 9 [col: either x = 1 [#"^(2028)"][#"A" + (x - 2)]
  append p: [] set ref: (to word! rejoin [col y - 1]) make face! [size: 90x24
    type:    pick [text field] header?: (y = 1) or (x = 1)
    offset:  -20x10 + as-pair ((x - 1) * size/x + 2) ((y - 1) * size/y + 1)
    text:    form case [y = 1 [col] x = 1 [y - 1] 'else [copy ""]]
    para:    make para! [align: pick [center right] header?]
    extra:   object [name: form ref formula: old: none]
    actors:  context [on-create: on-unfocus: function [f e][f/color: none
      if rel: f/extra/old [react/unlink rel 'all]
      if #"=" = first f/extra/formula: copy text: copy f/text [parse remove text
          [any [p: L N not ["/" skip not N] insert p " " insert "/data "
          | L skip | p: some D opt [dot some D] insert p " " insert " " | skip]]
        f/text: rejoin [f/extra/name "/data: any [math/safe [" text {] "#UND"]}]
       if f/data [any [react f/extra/old: f/data do f/data]]]]
      on-focus: func [f e][f/text: any [f/extra/formula f/text] f/color: yello]
]]]] view make face! [type: 'window text: "PicoSheet" size: 840x250 pane: p]

You can copy/paste the above code into the Red console for Windows, using the latest toolchain build (950 KB), or, better, using this prebuilt console version (247 KB, requires Windows 7+). Yeah, we still count in KB. ;-)

  • 100% native widgets using our built-in GUI engine (no third-party libraries, Windows only for now, OSX and GTK are coming).
  • Support for arbitrary Excel-style formulas (=A1+2*C3).
  • Support for arbitrary Red code in formulas.
  • Realtime updating of dependent cells as you type.
  • While editing a formula, dependent cells will display #UND (for "undefined").
  • If a formula is syntactically incorrect, #UND is displayed in the cell.
  • Code is packed to reduce the LOC number, but limited to 82 characters per line (could fit on 77 if indentation is removed).
  • It takes about 6 LOC to build the spreadsheet and 3 LOC to compile the formulas to Red expressions.
  • One expression per line (expressions can have nested expressions), Red's header not counting as an expression for the purpose of this demo, nor the last expression at line 16 for setting the yellow color on focus, it is just there to make the animated captures easier to follow.
  • Not using our VID dialect for GUI, such version is left as an exercise to the reader. ;-)
Here is a capture of how it works:

If you want to play with the same dataset, use this script.

This other session shows how to leverage the rich datatypes of Red, to play with, in the spreadsheet. It also shows that you can access the face objects properties from within the cells and modify them directly:

If you want to play with the same dataset, use this script.

Those captures were done on Windows, which is currently the most advanced GUI backend we have, our OSX and GTK backends are still a work in progress.

This demo was inspired by a similar one written in Tcl/tk which weights 30 LOC only, but takes advantage of a built-in grid component, and a C-like expressions parsing/evaluating library called expr. Though, it is still impressive to see what Tcl/tk can achieve. But the real king there, is the JS 220 bytes demo, even if it is more a testimony to the DOM capabilities (with a 100MB+ runtime behind) than JS expressivness. Nevertheless, Red's demo is the smallest one we could find in the native GUI category. Even the executable footprint is minimal. Once compiled (just insert Needs: View in the header in such case), it weights 655 KB, which can be further compressed down to just 221 KB, and as usual, zero dependency.

The above source code is very packed to fit in as less lines as possible, though it is still readable, as it is really hard to obfuscate Red code, even when you want to (mandatory spaces between tokens prevent from reaching C-like extremes). Therefore, you will hardly win a codegolf competition where each byte counts...unless you leverage Red's DSL abilities and write one optimized towards such goal.

How does it work?

It relies on our Red/View GUI engine, the reactive framework, the Parse DSL and the core Red language, which is, for those hearing about it for the first time, a Rebol language descendent, with one of the highest expressiveness among programming languages.

For the ones interested in the details of the above code, you can find a more readable version here and what follows is a detailed explanation. This is actually much simpler than it looks, here we go:

Line 1
 L: charset "ABCDEFGHI" D: union N: charset "123456789" charset "0" 
Skipping the Red [] header, it starts by defining a few bitsets, which will be used for the parsing operations. We create the D charset by combining N and "0", which save space.

Line 2
 repeat y 9 [repeat x 9 [col: either x = 1 [#"^(2028)"][#"A" + (x - 2)] 
A double loop is used to produce all the widgets needed. col is set to a space character if the column is a header, or to a letter starting from A to G. It will be used to create the cell names and the first row labels.

Line 3
 append p: [] set ref: (to word! rejoin [col y - 1]) make face! [size: 90x24 
Here we start building the faces which will be accumulated in p block. p: [] is a static allocation that conveniently avoids using a separate line to define p. The set ref: (to word! rejoin [col y - 1]) part is transparent, and let the face produced by make face! be appended to the p list. That transparent expression creates the cell name (in form of a capital letter denoting the column, and a number for the row), which is converted to a word, that gets set to the newly created face. Those words are necessary for supporting the spreadsheet formulas. Last, the opening block for the face definition leaves an option to append a nested expression, size definition being the shortest of all the other property definitions, is a good fit for that.

Line 4
 type:    pick [text field] header?: (y = 1) or (x = 1)
The face type can be a text for the first row/column and a field otherwise. The header? word will be useful further in the code, to indicate if the cell is a just label or a field. If you wonder why the use of or instead of the idiomatic any, it is to avoid an expensive conversion to logic!, as required by pick in such use-case.

Line 5
 offset:  -20x10 + as-pair ((x - 1) * size/x + 2) ((y - 1) * size/y + 1) 
The face position is calculated using the x and y values to set up a grid, which is sligtly moved to the left for (subjective) minor look improvement.

Line 6
 text:    form case [y = 1 [col] x = 1 [y - 1] 'else [copy ""]] 
The face content is set to col which contains column's label, or row number, or otherwise an empty string for input cells.

Line 7
 para:    make para! [align: pick [center right] header?] 
The face para object is just used there to center the header labels while keeping the cell content right-aligned.

Line 8
 extra:   object [name: form ref formula: old: none] 
The extra field is populated with an object which holds the state of the cell, namely:

  • name: name of the cell, in string format for easier usage in the formulas compiler.
  • formula: keeps a reference to the last entered formula, in text format, as typed by the user.
  • old: keeps a reference of the last reaction set by the cell's formula (or none).

Line 9
 actors:  context [on-create: on-unfocus: function [f e][f/color: none 
The cell definition is almost done, just remain the event handlers, which we start defining from this line. on-create is called when the cell is created, ensuring that the preset content will be properly processed (in case of a formula) before showing it for the first time. on-unfocus is the main way to trigger the user's input processing. on-enter was not used, as the tabbing support is not working currently, so pressing Enter key will keep the focus on the same cell, causing unwanted side-effects which would take several lines to workaround. Once proper tabbing will be there, we could add it too. Last, as the function's body block is opening, we can squeeze in a short expression, which just resets the background color of the cell to its default.

Line 10
 if rel: f/extra/old [react/unlink rel 'all] 
We start with the hot stuff now. If a previous formula did produce a reaction, we first destroy it.

Line 11
 if #"=" = first f/extra/formula: copy text: copy f/text [parse remove text 
If a formula is detected, we copy first the content in text, which will be used for the transformation to a Red expression. As series are owned by deep reactors (a face! object is one), the copy will ensure that no object events are produced during the transformation steps. A second copy creates another instance of the input string to be referenced by extra/formula. In case it is not a formula (all that is done before the test succeeds, it will have no effect on the cell content (just wasting some memory, but that's not what we optimize for, in this exercise). Last, we start the transformation of the input text if it's a formula, using a Parse rule, applied to text with the leading equal sign removed.

Line 12
 [any [p: L N not ["/" skip not N] insert p " " insert "/data " 
The rule starts with a loop, the goal is to spot all the cell names and insert a space before it and /data just after it ("A1" becomes " A1/data "). The not ["/" skip not N] rule is there to avoid transforming cell names followed by a face property (e.g. A1/color). It works by ensuring that the second character after the slash is not a number, allowing to still transform inputs like A1/B2 (A1 divided by B2).

Line 13
 | L skip | p: some D opt [dot some D] insert p " " insert " " | skip]] 
If the input is not a cell name, we search for numbers (some D) including number with decimals (opt [dot some D]), so we can insert a space before and after (e.g "1+2" become " 1 + 2 "), in order to enforce Red's syntactic rules (as we will LOAD that string later). The | L skip part is there to avoid injecting spaces to numbers with leading signs ("-123" would not be touched). The final skip rule just skips every other character we are not interested in.

Line 14
 f/text: rejoin [f/extra/name "/data: any [math/safe [" text {] "#UND"]}] 
The transformation is almost done, the last step is decorating properly the text to generate the Red expression we are aiming for. First we enclose the resulting expression from last step in a math/safe [...] block. The math function just ensures that math precedence rules are enforced, while /safe option evaluates the code using attempt internally, so any error will be returned as a none value (and in such case, the "#UND" string is used). The result of that evaluation is set the the current cell. So for an input formula like: "=A1+B1" in C1 cell, we get as result of the transformation process:
 "C1/data: any [math/safe [ A1/data + B1/data ] "#UND"]", which is a LOADable expression in string format. But LOAD is not used in the demo code? Well, it is, thanks to a new feature in 0.6.1 release: by default the /text property of a field is synchronized in realtime with its /data property, using a LOAD call. If it fails, /data is set to none value. Conversely, setting /data will change /text value at once using a FORM call. Well, that's what the resulting expression is meant to leverage. ;-)

Line 15
 if f/data [any [react f/extra/old: f/data do f/data]]]] 
Now take a deep breath as we reach the crux of the matter. The previous line set f/text, which, at once created a LOADed version of that string, referred by f/data. If the LOADing failed, f/data would be set to none and then we just exit the event handler. Otherwise, we have something we can use as the input to REACT for trying to set up a new reactive relation for that cell. That's where the "/data" injection for the cell names in previous steps, becomes useful. Those path! values are statically analyzed by REACT to determine the reactive sources. Though, if no reactive source has been found in the expression (e.g. "=1+2" which would give [C1/data: any [math/safe [ 1 + 2 ]]] in f/data), REACT returns none and we then can simply evaluate the expression, which would assign the result to the current cell /data (hence to /text, making it visible to the user). If REACT succeeded, we have set a new reactive relation for that cell, and by default, the reaction is run once on creation, ensuring that our cell gets the correct visual value (by indirectly setting /data, as usual now). Moreover, we save in extra/old a reference to the expression we used for creating the reactive relation, as we'll need to destroy if the user inputs a new formula. If you're still following, at this point, congrats, you can consider yourself a master of both View and the reactive framework. ;-)

Line 16
 on-focus: func [f e][f/text: any [f/extra/formula f/text] f/color: yello] 
The second event handler is used to restore the saved formula (if any) in the cell, when the user gives it the focus. We also then set the background color to yellow, which is...well, like yellow color, but a bit less yellow...hence the truncated name for an otherwise anonymous color. (Carl, if you're reading this, I hope you appreciate my tap-dancing around your, sometimes, creative naming schemes. ;-))

Line 17
 ]]]] view make face! [type: 'window text: "PicoSheet" size: 840x250 pane: p] 
This last line is just creating a window, assigning the list of previously created labels and fields to the /pane property (face's children), then displaying it while entering an event loop using view call. That's all folks!

Last thoughts

We hope this demo and explanations were both entertaining and informative. Spreadsheet applications are not your common app, they are special. They are a unique combination of incredibly useful and powerful features, while at the same time being usable by pretty much anyone with basic computer skills. Many consider them as the culmination of our industrial software world, Microsoft's CEO itself declared a few days ago, that Excel was the best product his company ever made.

As Red allows you to create such software in a convenient and straightforward way, using native technologies, we hope this will inspire some of you to invest more time learning Red and to create some amazing software with it!

Beyond the simple fun provided by this demo, it also shows the potential of Red in the native GUI apps domain (we're just at 0.6.1, we have many more features planned and platforms to support). In the big struggle between native vs web solutions, you can expect Red to become, someday, an option to account for.

In the meantime... have fun with Red, as much as we do! ;-)

June 29, 2016

0.6.1: Reactive Programming

Despite being a minor release, 0.6.1 still weighs a heavy 588 commits with a big number of fixes and many additions, among which the new reactive framework is the most notable.

Last release introduced, for the first time in the Rebol world, a reactive programming framework, as a part of the GUI engine. While working on improving it, we realized that it could actually be easily generalized beyond GUIs, with just minor changes to its design and implementation.

What is reactive programming?

Let me make a short disclaimer first, this is not yet-another-FRP framework relying on event streams. The reactive model we use is known as object-oriented reactive programming (using a "push" model), which is both simple to understand and close to spreadsheet's model (i.e. Excel formulas). That model has often been praised for its simplicity and efficiency. You can now use it directly in Red.

So, in practice, what is it?  It is a way to link one or more object fields to other fields or global words, by specifying relationships in a block of code (can be a single expression or a complex multi-step computation). Each time a source field value changes, the target value is immediatly updated, you don't have to call a function for that, it's pretty much define-and-forget. ;-) Here's a simple example in Red:
    red>> a: make reactor! [x: 1 y: 2 total: is [x + y]]
    == make object! [
        x: 1
        y: 2
        total: 3
    red>> a/x: 5
    == 5
    red>> a/total
    == 7
    red>> a/y: 10
    == 10
    red>> a/total
    == 15
In that example, the is infix function is used to create a reactive relation between the total field and the x and y ones using a simple formula. Once set, total is refreshed automatically and asynchronously each time the other fields are changed, regardless how, where or when they are changed! It's the same concept as spreadsheet cells and formulas, just applied to object fields.

This reactive programming style belongs to the dataflow programming paradigm. It doesn't enable you to write code, that you wouldn't otherwise be able to write in an imperative style. Though, it helps reduce the size and complexity of your code, by abstracting away the "how" and helping you focusing more on the "what" (not dissimilar to FP). The gains of such approach become significant when you chain together many relations, creating graphs of, more or less complex dependencies. GUI programming is where it shines the most, as nodes are visible objects, and reactions produce visible effects.

Here is a comparative example with a reactive GUI vs the non-reactive version:

Let's make a simple native GUI app using VID, Red's graphic DSL (we call it a dialect). It will just provide 3 sliders, which control the R, G, B components of the box's background color.

The reactive version:
    to-int: function [value [percent!]][to integer! 255 * value]
    view [
        r: slider
        g: slider
        b: slider
        base react [
            face/color: as-color to-int r/data to-int g/data to-int b/data
The non-reactive version:
    to-int: function [value [percent!]][to integer! 255 * value]
    view [
        slider on-change [box/color/1: to-int face/data]
        slider on-change [box/color/2: to-int face/data]
        slider on-change [box/color/3: to-int face/data]
        box: base black
What can we say about the non-reactive version?
  1. Size is pretty much the same, though the non-reactive version has more expressions and code looks denser.
  2. The updating code is spread over 3 event handlers.
  3. The face word in each handler refers to the widget, so we can remove the slider names (very minor gain though).
  4. The box face needs a name (`box`), so it can be referred to, from the event handlers.
  5. The box face default color is grey, so it needs a `black` keyword to force it to the right default color (as the sliders are all at position 0 on start). The reactive version sets the right color on start, no need to care about it.

Even in this simple example, we can see that the complexity, and the cognitive load are higher in the non-reactive version. The more relationships can be modeled using reactions in a GUI app, the higher the gains from using the reactive approach.

Red reactive framework

Red's reactive framework is just ~250 LOC long, and written purely in Red (no Red/System). It relies on object events (equivalent to observables in OO languages) and the ownership system (which will be properly documented once completed in one or two releases time). Rebol does not offer any past experience in such domain to guide us, so it should still be considered experimental, and we need to put it to the test in the wild, to study the pros/cons in real-world applications. We are quite excited to see what Red users will create with it.

Full documentation for the reactive framework is available here. It also explains the important difference between static and dynamic relations.

In a nutshell, the reactive API provides 4 functions (quite big API by our standards):

  • react to create or remove reactions.
  • is infix function for creating reactions which result will be assigned.
  • react? to check if an object's field is a reactive source.
  • clear-reactions to remove all existing reactions.

Moreover, react is directly supported as a keyword from VID dialect. That's all you need! ;-)

Here is a simple demo linking together a couple dozen balls, following each other. Source code is available here.

Let's now have a look at other features brought by this release.

Time! datatype

A time! datatype is now included in Red, supporting already a broad range of features, like:
  • Path accessors: /hour, /minute, /second.
  • Math operators, including mixing with other scalar types.
  • All comparison operators.
  • Actions: negate, remainder, random, pick.
    red>> t: now/time
    == 12:41:52
    red>> t + 0:20:00
    == 13:01:52
    red>> t/second
    == 52.0
    red>> t/hour: t/hour - 5
    == 7
    red>> t
    == 7:41:52

GUI changes

Two main additions to our View engine have enabled the writing, or porting, of some nice graphic demos (thanks to Gregg Irwin for the awesome demos!). Here are a few examples:

Bubble demo

Gradient Lab

Particles demo

View engine changes
  • New time event in View, triggered by timers.
  • New rate facet in face! objects for setting timers.
  • move action allows to move faces between panes in a non-destructive way.
  • Adds support for event/window property.
  • data syncing with text for field and text faces.
  • Add default option for fields (e.g. options: [default 0]).
  • at, skip, pick, poke, copy on image! now accept pair! index argument.
  • Added /argb refinement for image! datatype.
  • Added request-font dialog.
  • Improved size-text native.
  • GUI console faces are now excluded from the View debug logs.

Draw dialect changes
  • fill-pen has been extended to support color gradients.
  • pen accepts `off` as argument now, to make the subsequent pen-related operations invisible.
  • Allows box to accept edges in reverse order.
  • Radius of circle now accepts a float! value.
  • Added key-color support for to image command.

VID dialect changes
  • Added rate keyword for setting timers.
  • do command now support `self` to refer to container face (window or panel).
  • Added focus option to faces for presetting focus.
  • Added select option support to preselect an item in a list (using an integer index).
  • Added default option support for field and text faces' default data facet value.
  • Added support for get-words to pass an handler function as an actor.
  • Adding glass and transparent color definitions.

The red/code repository has also been filled with more demos using the new features, like color gradients and timers.

Other changes

New actions: change, move

New natives: remove-each, new-line, new-line?, set-env, get-env, list-env, context?, enbase, now/time, browse

New functions: repend, overlap?, offset?, any-list?, number?, react, is, react?, clear-reactions, dump-reactions, make-dir, request-font, time?

Parse improvements
  • Added change command.
  • remove also accepts, now, a position argument.
  • Support for parsing binary! series.
  • Several bugs fixed.
Syntax for change command:
  • CHANGE rule value
  • CHANGE ONLY rule value
  • CHANGE rule (expression)
  • CHANGE ONLY rule (expression)
  • CHANGE pos value
  • CHANGE ONLY pos value
  • CHANGE pos (expression)
  • CHANGE ONLY pos (expression)
Example using rule syntax:
    a: "12abc34"
    alpha: charset [#"a" - #"z"]
    parse a [some [to alpha change [some alpha] dot]]
    a = "12.34"
Example using pos syntax:
    a: "12abc34"
    alpha: charset [#"a" - #"z"]
    parse a [some [to alpha b: some alpha change b dot]]
    a = "12.34"

Console improvements
  • Filenames completion using TAB key.
  • Font and color settings from new menu bar.
  • Ctrl-K will erase to end of line (CLI console).
  • Ctrl-D will remove character or exit like Ctrl-C if empty line (CLI console).
  • Optimized speed of pasted code in console.
Other improvements
  • Allows bitsets to be used as search pattern for find on any-string! series.
  • /next refinement support for do and load.
  • /seek and /part refinements added to read.
  • Added any-list! typeset.
  • Added /with refinement to pad function.
  • Improved split function (though not final version).
  • Added LF <=> CRLF conversions support to UTF-16 codec.
  • input can now read from stdin when run from  a child process.
  • Added /same refinement into find and select actions.
  • Added binary! support for data and HMAC key to checksum.
  • Reduced emitted code for setting struct members to float literals on IA-32.
  • Allows owned property to be used by modify on objects.
  • Compiler now accepts creating global op! values from object's functions.

A big number of tickets have also been processed, 110 bug fixes have been provided since 0.6.0 release. We have about 10% of open tickets which is more than usual, though not surprising after the last huge release, but only 22 are actual bugs. Thanks for all the contributors who reported the issues and helped fix them, Red owes you a lot!

What's next?

On the road to Android support, we need to be able to properly wrap a Red app in a shared library, which is the main focus for the next release. Moreover, being able to build the Red runtime library only once, will greatly reduce compilation time (the runtime library is currently rebuilt on each compilation). As the work on this new feature is already quite advanced, we expect next release to occur during July, even if we always favor quality over arbitrary deadlines. ;-)

In the meantime, enjoy the new release!

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